A Telescope 100x Stronger Than Hubble Will Unveil Parts Of The Cosmos We’ve Never Seen | Physics-Astronomy

JWST will ultimately provide unprecedented resolution and amazing sensitivity from the long-wavelength visible light through the mid-infrared range.

 

John C. Mather, senior project scientist for the Webb telescope and senior astrophysicist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland spoke out about the telescope in a news release: “I’m thrilled to see the list of astronomer’s most fascinating targets for the Webb telescope and extremely eager to see the results. We fully expect to be surprised by what we find.”

 

The telescope will facilitate a wide scope of research to be conducted, such as solar observations, to some of the most distant galaxies currently on record. All four of the instruments of the JWST will be utilized and its incredible abilities will be thoroughly demonstrated. Surprise and beauty is expected. 

 


 

Obviously, physicists and astronomers are excited and looking forward to use the JWST and rightly so. The level of thrill is so high that the STScI received eight times higher the average amount of requests for subscription to the Early Release period than it could facilitate. “It is a highly competitive field,” Neill Reid of the STScI revealed to Futurism.

 

 
Niell Reid also went on to say: “Webb is a six-and-a-half meters. There’s orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity with that, so there’s really an enormous area of discovery space. You can do bright objects much much faster. You can do much fainter objects than you could have ever done before with any telescope.”

 

 
Deputy senior project scientist for the JSWT also added onto the conversation: “In order to see things fainter, we need a larger telescope to collect more light.”

 

 

 

According to Gardner, the JWST possess several advantages over the Hubble Telescope, especially with its major strength being able to see back in time, allowing scientists to observe and analyze remote, dull galaxies in their early formations. Another reason for JWST’s growing popularity is its operation time is limited– to miss the chance of potentially operating is upsetting, to say the least. 

 

Reid spoke out on the reason as to why the time frame exists, saying that: “the limiting factor for Webb is basically fuel. Because it’s working in infrared, all of the instruments need to be kept really cold. The way that that’s done is not by using liquid nitrogen or anything like that– there’s a giant Sun shade that unfolds, basically puts the telescope into the shade.”

 

 

 


Properly operating the sunshade and moving between different objects demands the adjustment of the telescope’s orbit which uses rocket fuel. This means that the JWST is to operate for at least five years, but the team remains hopeful that the telescope will prevail for at least 10 years of operation.

 

Despite the short period of operation, the JWST is expected to deliver new, innovating information regarding exoplanets. 
 

The reason as to why this belief is in place is due to the several spectrographs operating at infrared and near-infrared wavelengths which enables researchers to probe regions that previously deemed the title “unaccessible” in the scavenge for relatively small exoplanets.

 

 
According to Neill Reid, researchers are now gifted the power to study the planet’s atmospheres with an amount of precision that hasn’t existed before. Gardner also praised the telescope, telling Futurism about a program chosen to be part of the Early Release period that will utilize the coronagraphy process. Coronagraphy allows scientists to observe the characteristics of the planet’s atmospheres as they travel in front of their stars.

 

 
“One of the most exciting things, I think, is that as the planets is transiting the star, the light from the star actually goes through the atmosphere of the planet and reaches our telescope. When we subtract that out, we can get a direct spectrum of the atmosphere and determine its constituents.”

 

 
Do expect more– these are only the earliest plans for the JWST and after taking into consideration the fact that the telescope is hypothesized to operate for at least a decade, JWST could provide a much more universal amount of information and insights to the scientific community before its final days. 

 

Obviously, physicists and astronomers are excited and looking forward to use the JWST and rightly so. The level of thrill is so high that the STScI received eight times higher the average amount of requests for subscription to the Early Release period than it could facilitate. “It is a highly competitive field,” Neill Reid of the STScI revealed to Futurism.

 

Niell Reid also went on to say: “Webb is a six-and-a-half meters. There’s orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity with that, so there’s really an enormous area of discovery space. You can do bright objects much much faster. You can do much fainter objects than you could have ever done before with any telescope.”

 

Deputy senior project scientist for the JSWT also added onto the conversation: “In order to see things fainter, we need a larger telescope to collect more light.”

 

According to Gardner, the JWST possess several advantages over the Hubble Telescope, especially with its major strength being able to see back in time, allowing scientists to observe and analyze remote, dull galaxies in their early formations. Another reason for JWST’s growing popularity is its operation time is limited– to miss the chance of potentially operating is upsetting, to say the least. 

 

Reid spoke out on the reason as to why the time frame exists, saying that: “the limiting factor for Webb is basically fuel. Because it’s working in infrared, all of the instruments need to be kept really cold. The way that that’s done is not by using liquid nitrogen or anything like that– there’s a giant Sun shade that unfolds, basically puts the telescope into the shade.”

 

Despite the short period of operation, the JWST is expected to deliver new, innovating information regarding exoplanets. 
The reason as to why this belief is in place is due to the several spectrographs operating at infrared and near-infrared wavelengths which enables researchers to probe regions that previously deemed the title “unaccessible” in the scavenge for relatively small exoplanets.

 

According to Neill Reid, researchers are now gifted the power to study the planet’s atmospheres with an amount of precision that hasn’t existed before. Gardner also praised the telescope, telling Futurism about a program chosen to be part of the Early Release period that will utilize the coronagraphy process. Coronagraphy allows scientists to observe the characteristics of the planet’s atmospheres as they travel in front of their stars.

 

“One of the most exciting things, I think, is that as the planets is transiting the star, the light from the star actually goes through the atmosphere of the planet and reaches our telescope. When we subtract that out, we can get a direct spectrum of the atmosphere and determine its constituents.”

 

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Bringing balance to the universe: New theory could explain missing 95 percent of the cosmos

Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses ‘negative mass.” If you were to push a negative mass, it would accelerate towards you. This astonishing new theory may also prove right a prediction that Einstein made 100 years ago.

Our current, widely recognised model of the Universe, called LambdaCDM, tells us nothing about what dark and dark are like physically. We only know about them because of the gravitational effects they have on other, observable matter.

This , published today in Astronomy and Astrophysics, by Dr. Jamie Farnes from the Oxford e-Research Centre, Department of Engineering Science, offers a new explanation. Dr. Farnes says: “We now think that both dark matter and dark energy can be unified into a fluid which possesses a type of ‘negative gravity,” repelling all other material around them. Although this matter is peculiar to us, it suggests that our cosmos is symmetrical in both positive and negative qualities.”

The existence of negative matter had previously been ruled out as it was thought this material would become less dense as the Universe expands, which runs contrary to our observations that show dark energy does not thin out over time. However, Dr. Farnes’ research applies a ‘creation tensor,” which allows for negative masses to be continuously created. It demonstrates that when more and more negative masses are continually bursting into existence, this negative mass fluid does not dilute during the expansion of the cosmos. In fact, the fluid appears to be identical to dark energy.

Dr. Farnes’s theory also provides the first correct predictions of the behaviour of dark matter halos. Most galaxies are rotating so rapidly they should be tearing themselves apart, which suggests that an invisible ‘halo’ of dark matter must be holding them together. The new research published today features a computer simulation of the properties of negative mass, which predicts the formation of dark matter halos just like the ones inferred by observations using modern radio telescopes.

Albert Einstein provided the first hint of the dark universe exactly 100 years ago, when he discovered a parameter in his equations known as the ‘cosmological constant,” which we now know to be synonymous with dark energy. Einstein famously called the cosmological constant his ‘biggest blunder,” although modern astrophysical observations prove that it is a real phenomenon. In notes dating back to 1918, Einstein described his cosmological constant, writing that ‘a modification of the theory is required such that “empty space” takes the role of gravitating negative masses which are distributed all over the interstellar space.” It is therefore possible that Einstein himself predicted a negative-mass-filled universe.

Dr. Farnes says: “Previous approaches to combining dark energy and dark matter have attempted to modify Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which has turned out to be incredibly challenging. This new approach takes two old ideas that are known to be compatible with Einstein’s theory—negative masses and matter creation—and combines them together.

“The outcome seems rather beautiful: dark energy and dark matter can be unified into a single substance, with both effects being simply explainable as positive mass matter surfing on a sea of negative masses.”

Proof of Dr. Farnes’s will come from tests performed with a cutting-edge radio telescope known as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an international endeavour to build the world’s largest telescope in which the University of Oxford is collaborating.

Dr. Farnes adds: “There are still many theoretical issues and computational simulations to work through, and LambdaCDM has a nearly 30 year head start, but I’m looking forward to seeing whether this new extended version of LambdaCDM can accurately match other observational evidence of our cosmology. If real, it would suggest that the missing 95% of the cosmos had an aesthetic solution: we had forgotten to include a simple minus sign.”

Explore further: Dark matter clusters could reveal nature of dark energy

More information: J. S. Farnes. A unifying theory of dark energy and dark matter: Negative masses and matter creation within a modified LambdaCDM framework, Astronomy & Astrophysics (2018). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201832898 , https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962

Giant collisions shake the cosmos – CNN

Two L-shaped detectors in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatories (LIGO) in Louisiana and Washington worked together in the first-ever observation of a gravitational wave. As the wave passed, each arm of the L-shaped detector, which measures 2.5 miles long, lengthened and shortened by a distance of about one thousandth the diameter of a proton. To give a sense of scale, that’s the equivalent to measuring the distance from here to the next star system Alpha Centauri with a precision of the width of a human hair.
Now, with the help of another facility in Italy called Virgo, scientists are studying the general properties of these black hole collisions and where they are taking place. Gravitational waves travel at the speed of light and so, as they pass through the Earth, there is a small delay between when each detector notes their passage. That delay is used to help determine the location in the sky where the collision occurred. The technique is similar to the way geologists use the arrival times of earthquakes at different seismographs to locate the earthquake’s origin.
With the LIGO and Virgo detectors, scientists can better understand what happens when very heavy astronomical bodies collide. The collision of neutron stars, which are husks of stars slightly smaller than black holes, can also set off gravitational waves detected on Earth. And, of course, a black hole could also merge with a neutron star.
In a recently released paper, gravitational wave astronomers detailed 11 of these collisions — four of which had never been announced before — since the detectors started operating in 2015. Taking into account downtime when the equipment was not operational, that works out to about one detection every 15 days. In the most impressive example, two massive black holes merged to create one that is about 80 times the mass of the sun, making it the heaviest stellar-sized black hole ever observed.
For a split second, the collision released more energy than all than of the light released from every star in the entire visible universe. This was a huge thing. And it all happened in a galaxy located 9 billion light years away.
Prior to LIGO’s first observation, scientists didn’t think that stars could form black holes with masses greater than about 15 or 20 times heavier than the sun. So, with just 11 observations, scientists have already been forced to reconsider their theories.
While the announcement of a super-massive black hole makes for a good headline, this recent paper has a less-breathtaking but more scientifically meaningful impact. The observation of a single thing may be a curiosity. But several occurrences later, scientists can begin to draw some conclusions.
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By combining the known performance capabilities of the detector with the locations observed and the rate at which they are detected, astronomers can begin to say how often they occur. While scientists are working with a small sample size, they now estimate that in a sphere of space somewhere between half a billion and a billion light years across, we can expect to see one black hole merger per year .
And the story isn’t finished. The detectors are offline at the moment, undergoing upgrades that will allow them to peer twice as far away from Earth. This will allow them to investigate a volume eight times bigger than before. The days of gravitational wave astronomy is just in its infancy and there are no doubt huge surprises ahead.